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Residential Complex “Biosphere XXI”, Valencia / by Luís De Garrido

 

[Google-translated from Spanish]

1. Objectives má s important

– Build a prototype bioclimatic behave perfectly in any Spanish climate zone. That is, housing that can be self – regulating heat rse in any climate, and therefore available a high capacity to generate heat, and generate fresh, just for its architectural structure. In the same way, the house must have natural devices to reduce, if necessary, the humidity of the indoor air.

– To design a flexible housing with unique design, and you can expand or reduce the number of stays, easily, maintaining its formal perception.

– Conduct a housing model that can be promoted massively, and allows easy customization. That is, each prospective buyer would have a single dwelling.

– Projecting a house that can be fully industrialized, and most of his composing tes can be prefabricated.

– Demonstrate that the most economical and efficient heating system for a bioclimatic dwelling is based on electric radiators, with a night rate.

2. Architectural Solution

In order to meet the ambitious objectives, the choice of the appropriate architectural typology is crucial. To keep warm, the house must have a compact form factor, and must have a large glazed area to the south (with the appropriate solar protections). To stay cool must have very high spaces, covered courtyards, and forms inclined in the deck which allows rapid evacuation of indoor air.

As a re sult has obtained a simple and unique architectural solution, which in turn, allows a high degree of flexibility, since the owner can zoom in and housing at will. This flexibility is evident in the north terraces of the first floor and, although the user can make arbitrary modifications, the visual imprint, and the architectural structure remains intact.

Finally, it must be said that the proposed architectural structure allows for a high level of personalization, to such an extent that all the built houses ask to be different from each other. In this way, each user can have a unique home.

Initially 8 different houses have been built, and in total it is planned to build about 100 houses spread throughout the Spanish territory, and thus verify its perfect bioclimatic behavior, whatever its location.

3. Sustainable Analysis

1. Optimization of resources

1.1. Natural resources. They are maximized resources such as the sun (to generate hot water, and provide natural lighting to all households), the breeze, the land (to cool the housing), rainwater (for irrig garden) heath for sunscreens roof gardens … .. On the other hand, water-saving devices have been installed in the faucets, showers and cisterns of the complex.

1.2. Features manufactured. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project and effective management. It has boosted the use of sandwich panels based on different types of boards (Viroc, Trespa, Birch plywood, corrugated iron, …). Most of the architectural elements used have been made at the factory, so the level of utilization of the resources used at maximum. Even the structure of the houses has been made of prefabricated panels of lightened reinforced concrete (walls and slabs).

1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of building materials may be recoverable (prefabricated panels concrete panels cover panels exterior wall panels interior separation, flooring, carpentry, glass, wooden beams, metal beams, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, solar, health, protection …).
On the other hand, it has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials, such as water pipes polypropylene po, drainpipes made of polyethylene, chipboards OSB door interi pray, plywood boards for coatings, recycled glass For kitchen countertops and windows, etc …

2. Decrease in energy consumption

2.1. Building.
The building has been built with minimal energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of e nergy.

2.2. Use.
Because of its characteristi bioclimatic as the housing s n s has a very low ethical conventional energy consumption. The housing s s n is lime ienta by greenhouse and accumulators with nightly rate. E l hot water is generated by medi or t he thermal solar collectors integrated into the southern facade of the whole.
The housing s s n is cooled by geothermal architectural systems, and does not need n mechanical systems to cond icionamiento, so no energy consumption.

The fact that the house is bioclimatic and perfectly isolated, makes electric heating the best option. When using the night rate, the economic cost is reduced by half. Because it is a bioclimatic dwelling, it goes back down to more than half. And in addition you have to discount the costs of the conventional heating facilities, plus the cost of the built surface required.

2.3. Dismantling
The vast majority of the materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (structure, facade panels, interior panels, flooring, carpentry, glass, beams wood, metal beams, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, pergolas heather, health, …).

3. Use of alternative energy sources
L to energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar collectors to produce the ACS), and geothermal (architectural system to cool the air, taking advantage of low you mperaturas existing underground in the underground galleries beneath the garage).

4. Reduction of waste and emissions
The housing s s n does not generate any emissions, nor generates n any waste, except organic.

5. Improving health and human welfare s
All the materials used are ecological and healthy, and do not have any type of emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the housing s s n is ventilated naturally, and uses n the most of natural lighting, which creates a healthy lowing amb and provides the best quality Of possible life to the occupants of the building.

6. Decrease in the price of the building and its maintenance
The housing s s n has been projected s rationally, eliminating redundant, unnecessary or free games, which allows s or construction to a conventional price, despite the ecological equipment includes. Similarly, the housing s s are very easy to maintain is: Regular cleaning and treatment of wood biennial vegetable – based oils.

4. Bioclimatic Characteristics

1.1. Heat generation systems
The house heats itself, in two ways: 1. Avoiding cooling: due to its high thermal insulation, and the correct arrangement of glazed surfaces. 2. Due to its careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS orientation, the house is heated by greenhouse effect, solar radiation, and cale faction by electric accumulators nightly rate; And remains hot for a long time, due to its high thermal inertia.

1.2. Cooling systems
Housing cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding heat: providing most of the glazed south (sun protection providing for direct and indirect solar radiation) and north, and providing adequate insulation surface. 2. Cooling down through an architectural air cooling system through underground galleries. On the other hand, due to the high thermal inertia of the building, the fresh accumulated during the night, is maintained during almost the whole of the following day. 3. Evacuating hot air to the exterior of the house, through the upper windows of the central covered patio. The sloped roof shape enhances natural convection and provides an effective “chimney effect” to draw hot air from the interior of the house. In the same way, the hot air from the upper rooms is evacuated by means of metallic solar chimneys located in the garden cover.

3. Accumulation systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter accumulates in the slabs and the load walls, keeping the house warm at night. In the same way, the coolant generated during the night in summer accumulates in the slabs and the load walls, keeping the house cool during the day. The landscaped roof of high thermal inertia, reinforces this process.

4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by greenhouse effect and natural radiation is distributed as hot air throughout the building from the central greenhouse. The heat accumulated in the load walls is transmitted to the side rooms by radiation.
The fresh air generated in the underground galleries is distributed by the house through a set of grids distributed in the floor of the house. On the other hand, fresh air ascends through the central courtyard and runs through all the rooms through the grates of the interior passage doors.

5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is done continuously and naturally, through the walls themselves, which allows adequate ventilation, without energy losses. This type of ventilation is possible since all the materials used are breathable (ceramic, lime-cement mortar, paint to silicates), even if the whole has a completely water-repellent behavior.

5. Eco – friendly materials

1. Foundation and structure.
Prefabricated double-walled walls and insulation. The inner sheet forms the loading wall reinforced concrete 15 cm. Of thickness (with high thermal inertia). The outer sheet is lightweight precast reinforced concrete 6 cm. Inside double sheet is a layer of insulation hemp 5cm. and an air chamber ventilated 3 cm. In some parts of the f Achada has replaced the outer concrete panel, a ventilated façade based Ipe wood treated with vegetable oils. The forging has been made from prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs.

The inclined walls have been made by means of sandwich panels. The outer face of the sandwich panel was made by Trespa boards of different colors and textures (also been used zinc sheet), and the inner face was made using Viroc boards. The interior insulation is made of wood fiber panels, and hemp.

2. Exterior finishes
Painting the silicates. Matched Tables Ipe wood treated with vegetable oils, Trespa and Zinc.

3. Interior finishes
Vegetable paints. I Solad based parquet birch plywood (Naturtek). Natural stone floors. Double board doors made of agglomerated wood, veneered with beech wood, and treated with vegetable oils.

4. Cover
The roof garden has an average thickness of 25 cm. of Earth. The pitched roof is made of a board “sandwich” consisting of three sheets: a checkerboard Viroc (wood chips with cement) of 13 mm. thick, black layer of cork (bark from cork oak forests torched) of 100 mm. thick, and a board of birch plywood 13 mm. of thickness. This “sandwich” board is covered by an asphalt cloth and zinc sheet. The beams are made of Ipe dyed and treated with vegetable oils.

5. Others
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drain pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Antibacterial kitchen countertops Silestone. Walls and floors of high performance glass (anti-scra t ch, non – slip, easy cleaning, Serigrafi a special, …). Pine wood carpentry treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Solar protections of solid pine wood, treated with vegetable oils.

6. Highlights Innovations

– Construction system, based on prefabricated sandwich panels.

– Experimentation (hemp fiber, cork, wood fiber, coconut fiber, recycled paper, Styrodur-C, …) different ecological insulation materials.

– Simple type of housing that allows a perfect bioclimatic behavior at any point d and the Spanish geography. The prototype shows that although one of the aims of architecture is to dapting to the particular climatic conditions in a given environment, can be designed flexible architectural typologies, perfectly adapted to different climates, and provide a high level of welfare of occupants Of the building, without mechanical devices, and with very low energy consumption.

– System des-wetting “Peltier effect” very low energy consumption. The house has a perfect bioclimatic behavior, and summer is able to provide, by itself, maximum temperatures around 24 ° C. However, as can be built in unflattering environments , with very high humidity – housing system has an easy – des-Humidifier (very low energy consumption), to lower the humidity inside. This improves the level of comfort of the occupants, without the need to use mechanical air conditioning systems.

Residential Complex “Biosphere XXI”
(Prototype Kayzen)
2003
Biosphere XXI SL
Betera. Valencia
154’90 m 2 (Each of the houses)
(expandable to 165’80 and 176’65 m 2 m 2)
160,390 Euros