About Blasco House by Luis de Garrido
Most Important Goals
- Designing a home energy self-sufficient.
- Designing a home with a bioclimatic architectural structure, so you do not need absolutely no heating in winter.
- Designing a home that harmonizes the bioclimatic architectural refresh systems, with a mechanical cooling green.
- Designing a home with a mechanical cooling system powered solely by photovoltaic solar energy.
The house is located in a small lot near the beach of Gandia. The property is located diagonally into the place looking for a perfect south, to maximize the solar radiation in winter, and avoid it in summer.
The house has a tripartite architectural structure, turning all the spaces covered patio (greenhouse in winter, crisper in summer). This central space provides a vertical communication and architectural richness to the whole.
The users wanted a house that was completely self-sufficient from an energy standpoint, and that in turn could generate a very cool in summer, and had no need for any heating in winter (the stove built into a wall load has a symbolic purpose.)
The request was solved by providing housing a large glazed areas to the south, and by providing a large thermal inertia, and a carefully considered layout of walls captors. Thus, housing can make the most of solar radiation (however little there is) in winter, and use it to create a greenhouse effect sufficient housing to ensure the welfare of the occupants.
These huge areas of glass, are effectively protected in summer, using a combined system of shading of various kinds, so that solar radiation directly and indirectly, not hot housing. However, since housing is designed to be a perfect solar captor, and given also the space requirements have extremely cool in summer, has had a mechanical cooling system, powered by photovoltaic electricity. The decision to install a mechanical cooling system is further reinforced by the client’s desire to lower the maximum humidity in your home (the home environment is especially hot and humid). The property includes on its cover a set of photovoltaic solar collectors that provide 4 kW / peak, enough to feed this system and meet their energy needs few (as few appliances, and are energy efficient.)
1. Resource Optimization
- 1.1. Natural Resources. Are maximized resources such as sunlight (for home heating and electricity generation), the breeze, the land (to cool the housing), rain water (for watering the garden and flushing toilets), …. .
- 1.2. Manufactured resources. The materials used are maximized, thus avoiding the maximum possible waste through proper project and effective management (concrete, bricks, ceramic tiles, carpentry, painting, …). On the other hand, the proper design of housing, based on load-bearing walls, can only be built without assistive devices (such as scaffolds, cranes, etc …).
- 1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of housing materials may be recoverable (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health …).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, chipboard OSB for interior doors, plywood panels and the sloping roof coatings, recycled glass kitchen countertops and windows, etc …
2. Decreased energy consumption
The house was built with minimal energy consumption. The materials used are manufactured with minimal energy. On the other hand, housing has been built with little supporting resources, and with very little labor.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic housing has a very low energy consumption standard. The house is heated only by the greenhouse effect. The hot water is generated by two thermal solar collectors. The house is cooled by bioclimatic structure, and through a mechanical system powered by photovoltaic solar collectors integrated into the architectural structure.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health …). On the other hand, housing is designed to have high durability and life cycle of hundreds of years, because all components are easily serviceable housing. Thus, there is no question of dismantling, but continued maintenance of very low energy consumption.
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: Solar Thermal (two solar collectors for the ACS, and evaporation of water to air cooling) and photovoltaic, and geothermal (refresh system taking advantage of low air temperature at 2 meters underground in the galleries below the suspended floor of the house).
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
Housing does not generate any emissions and does not generate any waste, except organic. Some of these household waste are used again for treating accordingly (gray water for watering the garden). On the other hand, during the construction of the house just waste were generated, and many of them have been reused.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy, and do not have any programs that might affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizes natural light (no artificial lighting can be used as long as natural lighting) creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants .
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house is designed in a rational manner, eliminating redundant items, unnecessary, or free, allowing construction to a conventional price, despite the ecological equipment incorporated. Similarly, housing is very easy to maintain, routine cleaning, and processing wood biennial vegetable oils.
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself, in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, large glass surfaces and having just south and east, and none to the north. 2. due to its careful and special bioclimatic design. Greenhouse is heated, direct sunlight, and stays warm for a long time, due to its high thermal inertia.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Housing cools itself in four ways: 1. Avoiding hot, glazed surfaces having only south and east, just west; disposing of sunscreens for the direct and indirect solar radiation (a type of protection different for each of the holes with different orientation), and providing isolation appropriate. 2. Cooling by a cooling air through a wind sensor, and a geothermal system of underground galleries. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the housing, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for nearly all the next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the house, through a solar chimney and the natural convection and 4. Mechanical cooling system by water evaporation.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter (greenhouse gases and solar radiation) accumulates in the floors and interior load-bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus the house stays warm all night, with little energy.
Generated during the cool summer night (for natural ventilation due to lower temperatures outside) accumulates in the floors and interior load-bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus the housing remains fresh throughout the day without any energy consumption.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by natural radiation emissions and is distributed throughout the home, through the central courtyard, which overturned all rooms.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries for the housing is divided by a set of grids spread over the floor of the house. On the other hand, fresh air rises through the central courtyard and through all the rooms through the vents Interior doors. Fresh air vents of the mechanical system, coincides with the outputs of bioclimatic architectural system.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is in a continuous and natural, through the very walls surround, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible as all materials are breathable (ceramic, lime-cement mortar, paint silicates), although the whole performance has a completely waterproof.
1. Foundation and structure.
Wall of two leaves. The inner blade is the load-bearing brick wall perforated 25 cm. thickness (with high thermal inertia). The blade is hollow brick exterior of 7 cm. Inside the double sheet is a layer of hemp insulation 5 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. (in some parts of the front outer blade is made out of wood slats tongued sweden heat-treated pine, arranged by battens, including an insulating layer of hemp than 5 cm, and a ventilated air space of 2 cm .) Forged semiviguetas prestressed and concrete slabs.
2. Exterior finishes
Silicate paint. Ipe wood treated with vegetable oils.
3. Interior finishes
Vegetable paintings. Floors of porcelain stoneware tiles. Double panel doors plywood, beech plywood, and treated with vegetable oils.
Sloping roof that enhances the natural convection effect creates a “chimney”for the removal of indoor air in summer. The sloping roof is made based on a board “sandwich”consisting of three sheets: a Viroc board (wood chips with cement) of 13 mm. thick, black layer of cork (from bark of cork oak forests on fire) of 100 mm. thick, and a birch plywood board of 13 mm. thick. This board “sandwich” is protected by a tar paper and a coating of zinc.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Iroko wood carpentry treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Sunscreens Ipe solid wood, treated with vegetable oils. All woods used have a certificate of origin with selective logging and ecological treatment (FSC).
- Design of captor wind and geothermal system air cooling by means of underground galleries, taking advantage of the space under the suspended floor.
- -System refresh mechanical sensors powered by solar.
- Integration of bioclimatic architectural refresh system with the mechanical system.